It’s an odd formulation: כל עדת בני ישראל. Not בני ישראל or כל ישראל. What does it mean?
But the pasuk does not say קהל; it says עדה. What is an עדה?
The hint is how the word is used elsewhere in the Torah. The term עדה is how we learn what constitutes a quorum in Jewish law, a מנין:
It’s very odd: we learn how to serve ה׳ from the evil spies. The way this is usually understood is that the spies influenced the entire community; עדה is from the root עד; witness or testimony. An עדה is a group capable of creating a like-minded community. As Rabbi Sacks puts it:
The prototype of how an עדה of only ten affects an entire community is from Abraham:
But our parasha requires us to go further; we cannot rely on the minimal עדה. We must be כל עדת בני ישראל; all of us must be the core that defines us as a whole.
These גופי תורה define our “community of shared faith”; if you look carefully at the parasha, you can see the ten commandments embedded in the mitzvot listed. But there is one commandment that seems out of place:
In the פשט, פיגול is the sin of eating a קרבן שלמים after the 2-day deadline. In the actual הלכה, the specific sin being listed here is having the wrong intention: planning to eat it after the deadline.
The logic is that we should not invalidate a sacrifice that was done correctly (לא ירצה) because of something that may happen three days later, possibly by someone else entirely. The problem that invalidates the sacrifice must be something wrong in the sacrifice itself.
It’s a real law, but how does it it fit, of all the laws of קרבנות, into these גופי תורה?
שד״ל proposes an answer that ties the whole perek together:
The laws of פיגול now become the linchpin tying the two halves of the עשרת הדברות together; ritual and communal are inseparable and are what makes us קדושים.